New and Emerging Diseases An Update

You can download New and Emerging Diseases An Update Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice Volume 23 Issue 2 by Nicole R. Wyre & Sue Chen free in pdf format.

New and Emerging Diseases An Update

 

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As discussed in our 2013 issue of emerging diseases of nontraditional exotic species, the “discovery” of new diseases not only encompasses newly reported pathogens and disease conditions but also includes known pathogens of 1 species that have spread to a novel host, pathogens that have new geographic ranges, and pathogens with changes in virulence, morbidity, and mortality. For example, Ranavirus has long plagued amphibian species, leading to global population decline, but has now been documented to infect chelonians with high morbidities and mortalities. Reports have now documented the potentially zoonotic pathogen Pseudomonas luteola in ferrets worldwide, thereby expanding its geographic range. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus is an emerging pathogen in chinchillas, while Pseudomomas aeruginosa continues to cause significant disease. Finally, new variants of some pathogens, such as Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease virus 2, has led to increased morbidity and mortality in rabbits in Australia, and infection with 1 variant does not confer protection for the other.
Emerging diseases in our exotic species also have noninfectious causes. We have seen recent changes in the characterization of some diseases, such as the sudden switch of primarily struvite to cystine urolithasis in ferrets in the United States within the last decade. Bromethalin toxicosis, which has long been recognized in dogs and cats, has now been documented as the cause of neurologic signs in feral conures based on histologic lesions in the brain and positive fecal tests for desmethylbromethalin.

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